Partisipasi Semu Ibu Hamil di Posyandu

Shrimarti Rukmini Devy, Muhammad Hakimi, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Totok Mardikanto, Dhody Rafsandjani, Sofyan Haryanto

Abstract


Salah satu kebijakan pembangunan bidang kesehatan yang dipergunakan untuk mengatasi kesehatan ibu hamil adalah pemberdayaan masyarakat. Keberhasilan pemberdayaan dapat diketahui melalui berbagai cara, salah satunya partisipasi masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kondisi sosial, budaya, dan ekonomi yang mempengaruhi partisipasi ibu hamil ke posyandu. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan etnografi. Teknik yang digunakan untuk pengumpulan data adalah wawancara mendalam, focus group discussion, observasi dan nominal group process. Data yang diperoleh dari pendekatan kualitatif akan diolah dengan content analysis. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan kondisi sosial, budaya dan ekonomi yang mempengaruhi partisipasi ibu hamil ke posyandu di Desa Rapa Laok, bermula pada faktor kemiskinan. Kondisi sosial dan budaya yang berpengaruh pada partisipasi ibu hamil, yaitu kepercayaan pada mitos dan pantangan makanan bertentangan dengan aturan medis. Kondisi ekonomi yang berpengaruh pada partisipasi ibu hamil, yaitu beban fisik dan psikis ibu hamil terhadap kesejahteraan keluarga berlebihan. Ibu hamil datang untuk memeriksakan diri ke posyandu bukan karena kesadaran untuk menjaga kesehatan tetapi untuk mendapat imbalan satu dus mi instan. Model partisipasi ibu hamil ke posyandu yang tepat adalah dengan pendekatan nondirektif (partisipatif) yang produktif.

One of the development policies in health sector that is currently used to overcome maternal health issues is the community empowerment. The success of the community empowerment can be measured through the people participation. The objectives is to identify the social, cultural, and economic conditions which might influence the pregnant women participation in integrated service post. This study used a qualitative approach with an ethnographic design. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, observation, and nominal group process. The data collected were analyzed using content analysis. The social, cultural, and economic conditions that strongly affected the pregnant women participation in integrated service post, because of the poverty. The social and cultural condition that affected belief in myths and food taboos which are highly contradictory to the medical rules. The economic conditions that affected is women have heavy domestic and productive workloads. Their physical and psychological burdens were excessively high that could endanger the health. The participation of pregnant women was not based on true awareness for maintaining their health but such participation was more based on their desires of getting one box of instant noodles. The participation model for the pregnant women was designed using participatory (nondirective) approach which was productive.


Keywords


ibu hamil; partisipasi; posyandu; pregnant women; participation; integrated service post

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v7i10.5

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