Upaya Peningkatan Status Gizi Balita Malnutrisi Akut Berat Melalui Program Home Care

Fitri Haryanti, Madarina Julia

Abstract


Malnutrisi pada balita masih merupakan permasalahan di Indonesia termasuk di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Berdasarkan indikator berat badan menurut tinggi badan, 2,6% balita mengalami malnutrisi akut berat. Pada beberapa dekade terakhir, telah terjadi pergeseran paradigma dalam penanganan balita malnutrisi, yang sebelumnya berbasis pendekatan fasilitas kesehatan bergeser menjadi pendekatan berbasis komunitas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh program home care terhadap peningkatan status gizi balita malnutrisi pada anak usia 6-60 bulan. Penelitian menggunakan desain kuasi eksperimen dengan pretest dan posttest control group melalui tiga tahap pendampingan yaitu intensif, mandiri, dan penguatan dengan pendekatan asuhan keperawatan. Sampel adalah 56 balita malnutrisi akut di dua wilayah, yaitu 33 balita di Kota Yogyakarta (eksperimen) dan 23 balita di Kabupaten Sleman (kontrol) dengan teknik pengambilan sampel yaitu purposive sampling. Intervensi home care diberikan selama tiga 3 bulan (Januari sampai Maret 2013). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan setelah program home care, terjadi peningkatan yang signifikan pada status gizi balita (p < 0,05). Pada akhir intervensi, terjadi penurunan kejadian malnutrisi akut berat dari 100% menjadi 56,7% (p < 0,05).

 

Improving Nutritional Status of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Through Home Care Program

Children undernutrition is still an issue in Indonesia, including in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. Based on weight for height indicator, 2.6% children experience severe acute malnutrition. In the last few decades, there has been a paradigm shift in the management of acute malnutrition from a facility- based to community-centered approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of home care intervention on the improvement of nutritional status of severe acute malnutrition children aged 6-60 months. This study was designed with quasi-experimental and pretest-posttest control group design, conducted in three phases; intensive, strengthening and independent with nursing approach (January until March 2013). Samples were 56 children with severe and moderate acute malnutrition for both study sites, 33 children in Yogyakarta city (experiment) and 23 children in Sleman district (control), selected using purposive sampling. Home care intervention is given for three months (January until March 2014). Results findings show there were significant increase in nutritional status (p < 0.05) after home care intervention. At end line evaluation, the proportion of severe acute malnutrition in the experimental groups reduced significantly from 100% to 56,7% (p < 0.05).


Keywords


Balita; home care; malnutrisi akut berat; status gizi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v9i2.507

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